12th Five Year Plan (2012-17): Population and Future of India
Can all the impending challenges, as noted earlier, be solved? Probably note. What is possible, however, is to make these more manageable. One area where urgent attention is required is to decelerate growth of population significantly, especially in the Four Large North Indian (FLNI) States in the wider concept of reproductive health.
A popularly held belief is that as a country becomes economically more prosperous, its fertility declines significantly and leads to a stable population. However, this is a simplistic view of a complex phenomenon. Since the introduction of the market-based economic reforms in 1991, India has become one of the fasted growing major economies in the world. The economic reforms have just completed 20 years in the last July (2011), however, during this period, India’s population increased by 355 million, much more than the population of USA - the third most populous country in the world.
This raises the question: Is Development the Best Contraceptive -- or Are Contraceptives? Even 35 years after the UN supported World Population Congress in Bucharest in 1974, development continues to be the best contraceptive, “but the matter of population stabilization is now so urgent that it can no longer be left to be dictated by comparatively slower pace of economic growth in developing countries”, as agued by Dr. Karan Singh who represented India in the Bucharest Conference”. It is argued that there is a need to go beyond the prevailing notion that socio-economic development is an essential precondition for fertility transition, since it provided only a partial explanation for the monumental changes taking place in fertility behavior, especially in low-income economies (like Bangladesh, India’s immediate neighbor and Andhra Pradesh in the country). Evidence suggests the importance of management variables as well. In recent years, these have occupied a more prominent place in explanation of fertility decline.
In Short, the population of India is expected to increase from 1210 million in 2011 to 1370 million (scenario B) in 2021, as per Population Reference Bureau that is in the next ten years – an increase of 13.2 per cent or by 160 million during the decade at the rate of 1.24 per cent annually As a consequence, the population density will increase from 382 to 435 persons per sq. kilometre in 2021, creating more demand for additional resources like water, food, education, health, housing, etc. Of the net addition of 160 million people, around 46 million will be the result of unwanted/unplanned childbearing. This sort of population and development pattern has already created and will create several internal conflicts in the country. India is at the critical juncture because problems India has for long set aside have come to the fore and uneven population growth makes them pressing. Addressing this issue of population is the antidote to the various concerns plaguing the nation (like corruption, governance, low and order, poverty, women empowerment, etc.). As such, the population issue should not be allowed to become a “stumbling block” to socio-economic progress as well as the unity of the country.
Although the resultant demographic scenario based on the provisional results of the Census of India 2011does not inspire with confidence, achieving population stabilization in near future is not impossible. By strengthening the programme being conducted in the FLNI States, the goal of replacement level fertility required to initiate the process of population stabilization could be achieved even before 2021. This does not require too much by way of resources, but reorientation of programme management. If we achieve this goal, the population of the India as per the 2051 Census will be around 1500 million. Otherwise, it will be more than 1751 million.
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population of india 2012
Current Population of India - India, with 1,220,200,000 (1.22 billion) people is the second most populous country in the world, while China is on the top with over 1,350,044,605 (1.35 billion) people. The figures show that India represents almost 17.31% of the world's population, which means one out of six people on this planet live in India. Although, the crown of the world's most populous country is on China's head for decades, India is all set to take the numero uno position by 2030. With the population growth rate at 1.58%, India is predicted to have more than 1.53 billion people by the end of 2030.
More than 50% of India's current population is below the age of 25 and over 65% below the age of 35. About 72.2% of the population lives in some 638,000 villages and the rest 27.8% in about 5,480 towns and urban agglomerations. The birth rate (child births per 1,000 people per year) is 22.22 births/1,000 population (2009 est.) while death rate (deaths per 1000 individuals per year) is 6.4 deaths/1,000 population. Fertility rate is 2.72 children born/woman (NFHS-3, 2008) and Infant mortality rate is 30.15 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 estimated). India has the largest illiterate population in the world. The literacy rate of India as per 2001 Population Census is 65.38%, with male literacy rate at 75.96% and female at 54.28%. Kerala has the highest literacy rate at 90.86%, Mizoram (88.80%) is on the second position and Lakshadweep (86.66%) is on third.
Every year, India adds more people than any other nation in the world, and in fact the individual population of some of its states is equal to the total population of many countries. For example, Population of Uttar Pradesh (state in India) almost equals to the population of Brazil. It, as per 2001 Population Census of India, has 190 million people and the growth rate is 16.16%. The population of the second most populous state Maharashtra, which has a growth rate of 9.42%, is equal to that of Mexico's population. Bihar, with 8.07%, is the third most populous state in India and its population is more than Germany's. West Bengal with 7.79% growth rate, Andhra Pradesh (7.41%) and Tamil Nadu (6.07%) are at fourth, fifth and sixth positions respectively. The sex ratio of India stands at 933. Kerala with 1058 females per 1000 males is the state with the highest female sex ratio. Pondicherry (1001) is second, while Chhatisgarh (990) and Tamil Nadu (986) are at third and fourth places respectively. Haryana with 861 has the lowest female sex ratio.
Some of the reasons for India's rapidly growing population are poverty, illiteracy, high fertility rate, rapid decline in death rates or mortality rates and immigration from Bangladesh and Nepal. Alarmed by its swelling population, India started taking measures to stem the growth rate quite early. In fact India by launching the National Family Planning programme in 1952 became the first country in the world to have a population policy. The family planning programme yielded some noticeable results, bringing down significantly the country's fertility rate. In 1965-2009, the contraceptive usage more than tripled and the fertility rate more than halved. The efforts did produce positive results, however, failed to achieve the ultimate goal and the population of India since getting independence from Britain in 1947 increased almost three times. Whereas India has missed almost all its targets to bring the rate of population growth under control, China's 'One Child Policy' in 1978, has brought tremendous results for the latter. The policy claims to have prevented between 250 and 300 million births from 1978 to 2000 and 400 million births from 1979 to 2010.
Current Population of India 2012
Rank State or union territory Population (2011 Census) Density (per km²) Sex ratio
01 Uttar Pradesh 199,581,477 828 908
02 Maharashtra 112,372,972 365 946
03 Bihar 103,804,637 1102 916
04 West Bengal 91,347,736 1029 947
05 Andhra Pradesh 84,665,533 308 992
06 Madhya Pradesh 72,597,565 236 930
07 Tamil Nadu 72,138,958 555 995
08 Rajasthan 68,621,012 201 926
09 Karnataka 61,130,704 319 968
10 Gujarat 60,383,628 308 918
11 Odisha 41,947,358 269 978
12 Kerala 33,387,677 859 1,084
13 Jharkhand 32,966,238 414 947
14 Assam 31,169,272 397 954
15 Punjab 27,704,236 550 893
16 Haryana 25,353,081 573 877
17 Chhattisgarh 25,540,196 189 991
18 Jammu and Kashmir 12,548,926 56 883
19 Uttarakhand 10,116,752 189 963
20 Himachal Pradesh 6,856,509 123 974
21 Tripura 3,671,032 350 961
22 Meghalaya 2,964,007 132 986
23 Manipur 2,721,756 122 987
24 Nagaland 1,980,602 119 931
25 Goa 1,457,723 394 968
26 Arunachal Pradesh 1,382,611 17 920
27 Mizoram 1,091,014 52 975
28 Sikkim 607,688 86 889
UT1 Delhi 16,753,235 9,340 866
UT2 Puducherry 1,244,464 2,598 1,038
UT3 Chandigarh 1,054,686 9,252 818
UT4 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 379,944 46 878
UT5 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 342,853 698 775
UT6 Daman and Diu 242,911 2,169 618
UT7 Lakshadweep 64,429 2,013 946
Total India 1,210,193,422 382 940
Amritsar | Chennai | Mumbai | Jaipur | Gurgaon
Population of India
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